Choueiri, Arab Nationalism: A History: Nation and State in the Arab World , pp. Selim's efforts cost him his throne and his life, but were resolved in spectacular and bloody fashion by his successor, the dynamic Mahmud II , who eliminated the Janissary corps in In Ottoman North Africa, Spain conquered Oran from the Ottoman Empire
Origins of the Ottoman Empire
Aksan, Virginia. Muslim sects regarded as heretical, such as the Druze , Ismailis , Alevis , and Alawites , ranked below Jews and Christians. Under Selim and Suleiman the Magnificent , the Empire became a dominant naval force, controlling much of the Mediterranean. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
74 rows · 11/1/ · The official Ottoman Empire is believed to have been established in July and it Estimated Reading Time: 7 mins.
Ottoman Empire, Former empire centred in Anatolia.It was named for Osman I (1259–1326), a Turkish Muslim prince in Bithynia who conquered neighbouring regions once held by the Seljūq dynasty and founded his own ruling line c. 1300. Ottoman troops first invaded Europe in 1345, sweeping through the Balkans.
Slavery in the Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia
The Ottoman Empire and 16 other countries signed the 1890 Brussels Conference Act for the suppression of the slave trade. Clandestine slavery persisted into the early 20th century. A circular by the Ministry of Internal Affairs in October 1895 warned local authorities that some
2/11/ · The Ottoman Empire, an Islamic superpower, ruled much of the Middle East, North Africa and Eastern Europe between the 14th and early 20th centuries. The Ottoman Empire was one of the mightiest and.
A Symposium held in Rethymnon, January » , sur www. ISBN , lire en ligne , p. Richard G. Hovannisian, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, Cemevlerine ibadethane statüsü verilecek mi?
Abdelwahab Meddeb et Benjamin Stora , Albin Michel, , p. Cette bibliographie recense trop d'ouvrages juillet Eyalet Vilayet Sandjak Moutassarifat Kadiluk Nahija.
Droit Millet Cheikh al-Islam Hakham Bachi Turc ottoman Miniature Ottomanisme. Histoire de la Turquie. Drapeau de l'Empire ottoman Armoiries de l'Empire ottoman Prise de Constantinople. After losing the losing the Balkan Wars to a coalition that included some of its former imperial possessions, the empire was forced to give up its remaining European territory. The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in Russia and Austria both supported rebellious nationalists in the Balkans to further their own influence.
And the British and the French were eager to carve away territory controlled by the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East and North Africa. Neighboring Czarist Russia, whose sprawling realm included Muslims as well, developed into an increasingly bitter rival.
When the two empires took opposite sides in World War I, though, the Russians ended up collapsing first, in part because of the Ottoman forces prevented Russia from getting supplies from Europe via the Black Sea.
Tzar Nicholas II and his foreign minister, Sergei Sazanov, resisted the idea of negotiating a separate peace with the empire, which might have saved Russia. The Battle of Sarikamish between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, Before the war, the Ottoman Empire had signed a secret treaty with Germany, which turned out to be a very bad choice. In October , the empire signed an armistice with Great Britain, and quit the war. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness.
Also, as the largest group of non-Muslim subjects or dhimmi of the Islamic Ottoman state, the Orthodox millet was granted a number of special privileges in the fields of politics and commerce, and had to pay higher taxes than Muslim subjects. Society, government and religion was inter-related in complex ways after about , in a complex overlapping, inefficient system that Atatürk systematically dismantled after Religious officials formed the Ulama, who had control of religious teachings and theology, and also the Empire's judicial system, giving them a major voice in day-to-day affairs in communities across the Empire but not including the non-Muslim millets.
They were powerful enough to reject the military reforms proposed by Sultan Selim III. His successor Sultan Mahmud II r. The caliphate was abolished, madrasas were closed down, and the sharia courts abolished. He replaced the Arabic alphabet with Latin letters, ended the religious school system, and gave women some political rights. Many rural traditionalists never accepted this secularisation, and by the s they were reasserting a demand for a larger role for Islam. The Janissaries were a highly formidable military unit in the early years, but as Western Europe modernised its military organisation technology, the Janissaries became a reactionary force that resisted all change.
Steadily the Ottoman military power became outdated, but when the Janissaries felt their privileges were being threatened, or outsiders wanted to modernise them, or they might be superseded by the cavalrymen, they rose in rebellion. The rebellions were highly violent on both sides, but by the time the Janissaries were suppressed, it was far too late for Ottoman military power to catch up with the West. Sultan Mahmud II crushed the revolt, executed the leaders, and disbanded the large organisation.
The Janissaries had been recruited from Christians and other minorities; their abolition enabled the emergence of a Turkish elite to control the Ottoman Empire. The problem was that the Turkish element was very poorly educated, lacking higher schools of any sort, and locked into a Turkish language that used the Arabic alphabet that inhibited wider learning.
The large number of ethnic and religious minorities were tolerated in their own separate segregated domains called millets. In each locality, they governed themselves, spoke their own language, ran their own schools, cultural and religious institutions, and paid somewhat higher taxes.
They had no power outside the millet. The Imperial government protected them and prevented major violent clashes between ethnic groups. However, the millets showed very little loyalty to the Empire. Ethnic nationalism, based on distinctive religion and language, provided a centripetal force that eventually destroyed the Ottoman Empire. The British sponsored Arab nationalism in the First World War, promising an independent Arab state in return for Arab support.
At the local level, power was held beyond the control of the Sultan by the "ayan" or local notables. The ayan collected taxes, formed local armies to compete with other notables, took a reactionary attitude toward political or economic change, and often defied policies handed down by the Sultan. The economic system made little progress.
Printing was forbidden until the 18th century, for fear of defiling the secret documents of Islam. The millets, however, were allowed their own presses, using Greek, Hebrew, Armenian and other languages that greatly facilitated nationalism.
After the 18th century, the Ottoman Empire was clearly shrinking, as Russia put on heavy pressure and expanded to its south; Egypt became effectively independent in , and the British later took it over, along with Cyprus. Greece became independent, and Serbia and other Balkan areas became highly restive as the force of nationalism pushed against imperialism. The French took over Algeria and Tunisia. The Europeans all thought that the empire was a sick man in rapid decline.
Only the Germans seemed helpful, and their support led to the Ottoman Empire joining the central powers in , with the result that they came out as one of the heaviest losers of the First World War in The Ottomans absorbed some of the traditions, art, and institutions of cultures in the regions they conquered and added new dimensions to them. Numerous traditions and cultural traits of previous empires In fields such as architecture, cuisine, music, leisure, and government were adopted by the Ottoman Turks, who developed them into new forms, resulting in a new and distinctively Ottoman cultural identity.
Although the predominant literary language of the Ottoman Empire was Turkish, Persian was preferred vehicle for the projection of an imperial image. Agricultural slavery, such as that which was widespread in the Americas, was relatively rare. Unlike systems of chattel slavery , slaves under Islamic law were not regarded as movable property, and the children of female slaves were born legally free.
Female slaves were still sold in the Empire as late as Policies developed by various Sultans throughout the 19th century attempted to curtail the Ottoman slave trade but slavery had centuries of religious backing and sanction and so slavery was never abolished in the Empire. Plague remained a major scourge in Ottoman society until the second quarter of the 19th century. Ottomans adopted Persian bureaucratic traditions and culture.
The sultans also made an important contribution in the development of Persian literature. The two primary streams of Ottoman written literature are poetry and prose. Poetry was by far the dominant stream. Until the 19th century, Ottoman prose did not contain any examples of fiction: there were no counterparts to, for instance, the European romance , short story, or novel. Analogue genres did exist, though, in both Turkish folk literature and in Divan poetry. Ottoman Divan poetry was a highly ritualised and symbolic art form.
Divan poetry was composed through the constant juxtaposition of many such images within a strict metrical framework, thus allowing numerous potential meanings to emerge. Until the 19th century, Ottoman prose did not develop to the extent that contemporary Divan poetry did. Nevertheless, there was a tradition of prose in the literature of the time, though exclusively non-fictional in nature. The first novel published in the Ottoman Empire was by an Armenian named Vartan Pasha.
Published in , the novel was entitled The Story of Akabi Turkish: Akabi Hikyayesi and was written in Turkish but with Armenian script. Due to historically close ties with France, French literature came to constitute the major Western influence on Ottoman literature throughout the latter half of the 19th century. As a result, many of the same movements prevalent in France during this period also had their Ottoman equivalents; in the developing Ottoman prose tradition, for instance, the influence of Romanticism can be seen during the Tanzimat period, and that of the Realist and Naturalist movements in subsequent periods; in the poetic tradition, on the other hand, it was the influence of the Symbolist and Parnassian movements that became paramount.
This diversity was, in part, due to the Tanzimat writers' wish to disseminate as much of the new literature as possible, in the hopes that it would contribute to a revitalisation of Ottoman social structures. Ottoman architecture was influenced by Persian , Byzantine Greek and Islamic architectures. During the Tulip Era , it was under the influence of the highly ornamented styles of Western Europe; Baroque , Rococo , Empire and other styles intermingled.
Concepts of Ottoman architecture concentrate mainly on the mosque. The mosque was integral to society, city planning , and communal life. Besides the mosque, it is also possible to find good examples of Ottoman architecture in soup kitchens , theological schools, hospitals, Turkish baths , and tombs. Examples of Ottoman architecture of the classical period, besides Istanbul and Edirne , can also be seen in Egypt, Eritrea, Tunisia, Algiers, the Balkans, and Romania, where mosques, bridges, fountains, and schools were built.
The art of Ottoman decoration developed with a multitude of influences due to the wide ethnic range of the Ottoman Empire. The greatest of the court artists enriched the Ottoman Empire with many pluralistic artistic influences, such as mixing traditional Byzantine art with elements of Chinese art.
The tradition of Ottoman miniatures , painted to illustrate manuscripts or used in dedicated albums, was heavily influenced by the Persian art form, though it also included elements of the Byzantine tradition of illumination and painting. Surname-i Hümayun Imperial Festival Books were albums that commemorated celebrations in the Ottoman Empire in pictorial and textual detail.
Ottoman illumination covers non-figurative painted or drawn decorative art in books or on sheets in muraqqa or albums, as opposed to the figurative images of the Ottoman miniature. It was a part of the Ottoman Book Arts together with the Ottoman miniature taswir , calligraphy hat , Islamic calligraphy , bookbinding cilt and paper marbling ebru.
In the Ottoman Empire, illuminated and illustrated manuscripts were commissioned by the Sultan or the administrators of the court. In Topkapi Palace, these manuscripts were created by the artists working in Nakkashane , the atelier of the miniature and illumination artists. Both religious and non-religious books could be illuminated. Also, sheets for albums levha consisted of illuminated calligraphy hat of tughra , religious texts, verses from poems or proverbs, and purely decorative drawings.
The art of carpet weaving was particularly significant in the Ottoman Empire, carpets having an immense importance both as decorative furnishings, rich in religious and other symbolism and as a practical consideration, as it was customary to remove one's shoes in living quarters. Turks used carpets, rugs, and kilims not just on the floors of a room but also as a hanging on walls and doorways, where they provided additional insulation.
They were also commonly donated to mosques , which often amassed large collections of them. Ottoman classical music was an important part of the education of the Ottoman elite. A number of the Ottoman sultans were accomplished musicians and composers themselves, such as Selim III , whose compositions are often still performed today. Ottoman classical music arose largely from a confluence of Byzantine music , Armenian music , Arabic music , and Persian music.
Compositionally, it is organised around rhythmic units called usul , which are somewhat similar to meter in Western music, and melodic units called makam , which bear some resemblance to Western musical modes.
Because of a geographic and cultural divide between the capital and other areas, two broadly distinct styles of music arose in the Ottoman Empire: Ottoman classical music and folk music.
In the provinces, several different kinds of folk music were created. Some of the distinctive styles were: Janissary Music , Roma music , Belly dance , Turkish folk music.
The traditional shadow play called Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire and featured characters representing all of the major ethnic and social groups in that culture.
Its origins are obscure, deriving perhaps from an older Egyptian tradition, or possibly from an Asian source. Miniature from Surname-i Vehbi showing the Mehteran , the music band of the Janissaries. The shadow play Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire. Acrobacy in Surname-i Hümayun. This diverse cuisine was honed in the Imperial Palace's kitchens by chefs brought from certain parts of the Empire to create and experiment with different ingredients.
Much of the cuisine of former Ottoman territories today is descended from a shared Ottoman cuisine, especially Turkish , and including Greek , Balkan , Armenian , and Middle Eastern cuisines.
Over the course of Ottoman history, the Ottomans managed to build a large collection of libraries complete with translations of books from other cultures, as well as original manuscripts. Sultan Mehmet II ordered Georgios Amiroutzes , a Greek scholar from Trabzon , to translate and make available to Ottoman educational institutions the geography book of Ptolemy. Another example is Ali Qushji — an astronomer , mathematician and physicist originally from Samarkand — who became a professor in two madrasas and influenced Ottoman circles as a result of his writings and the activities of his students, even though he only spent two or three years in Constantinople before his death.
Taqi al-Din built the Constantinople observatory of Taqi al-Din in , where he carried out observations until He calculated the eccentricity of the Sun's orbit and the annual motion of the apogee. Female surgeons were also illustrated for the first time. An example of a watch that measured time in minutes was created by an Ottoman watchmaker, Meshur Sheyh Dede , in In the early 19th century, Egypt under Muhammad Ali began using steam engines for industrial manufacturing, with industries such as ironworks , textile manufacturing , paper mills and hulling mills moving towards steam power.
In the 19th century, Ishak Efendi is credited with introducing the then-current Western scientific ideas and developments to the Ottoman and wider Muslim world, as well as the invention of a suitable Turkish and Arabic scientific terminology, through his translations of Western works.
The main sports Ottomans were engaged in were Turkish wrestling , hunting, Turkish archery , horseback riding, equestrian javelin throw , arm wrestling, and swimming. European model sports clubs were formed with the spreading popularity of football matches in 19th century Constantinople.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For empires with Turkic origins, see List of Turkic dynasties and countries. This article is about the Ottoman realm. For the office of the Caliph, see Ottoman Caliphate.
Flag — Coat of arms — Sunni Islam School : Hanafi Creed : Maturidi. Part of a series on the. Prehistory of Anatolia. Bronze Age. Iron Age. Classical Age. Classical Anatolia Classical Thrace. Medieval Age. Medieval Anatolia. Ottoman Era. Periods of Ottoman Empire. Republic of Turkey. Periods of Turkey. By topic. Anatolian peoples Migration of Turks into Anatolia Constitutional history Economic history Military history Cultural history Timeline. Main article: Names of the Ottoman Empire.
Main article: History of the Ottoman Empire. See also: Territorial evolution of the Ottoman Empire. Main article: Rise of the Ottoman Empire. Further information: Osman I , Ottoman dynasty , and Gaza Thesis.
Rise — Beylik of Osman Interregnum — Fall of Constantinople. Classical Age — Sultanate of Women — Transformation — Köprülü Era — Old Regime — Tulip Era — Nizam-i Djedid late 18th and early 19th Tanzimat Era — 1st Constitutional Era — Dissolution — Main article: Growth of the Ottoman Empire. Suleiman the Magnificent and his wife Hürrem Sultan , two portraits by 16th century Venetian painter Titian. Main article: Transformation of the Ottoman Empire. Further information: Ottoman Decline Thesis.
Main article: Decline of the Ottoman Empire. Main articles: Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and History of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Main articles: Ottoman entry into World War I and Ottoman Empire during World War I. Main articles: Late Ottoman genocides , Armenian genocide , Greek genocide , and Seyfo. Main articles: Middle Eastern theatre of World War I and Arab Revolt. Main article: Ghaza thesis. Main article: State organisation of the Ottoman Empire.
Main article: Ottoman law. Main article: Military of the Ottoman Empire. Main article: Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire. Main article: Economic history of the Ottoman Empire. Main article: Demographics of the Ottoman Empire. Main article: Languages of the Ottoman Empire. See also: Millet Ottoman Empire. This section may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article or discuss the issue on the talk page.
November Main articles: Islam in the Ottoman Empire , Ottoman Caliphate , and Ottoman persecution of Alevis. See also: Islam in Turkey. Main articles: Christianity in the Ottoman Empire and History of the Jews in the Ottoman Empire. See also: Rayah. Main article: Culture of the Ottoman Empire. Main article: Education in the Ottoman Empire. Main article: Ottoman literature. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. July Main article: Media of the Ottoman Empire.
Main article: Ottoman architecture. Istanbul High School. Blue Mosque. Nuruosmaniye Mosque. Musicians and dancers entertain the crowds, from Surname-i Hümayun, Main article: Ottoman cuisine.
Main article: Science and technology in the Ottoman Empire. Turkey portal. Names other than Istanbul became obsolete in Turkish after the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in ,  and after Turkey's transition to Latin script in , the Turkish government in requested that foreign embassies and companies use Istanbul , and that name became widely accepted internationally. The international recognition of the GNAT and the Government of Ankara was achieved through the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne on 24 July The Grand National Assembly of Turkey promulgated the Republic on 29 October , which ended the Ottoman Empire in history.
Madan, Life and travels of Vasco Da Gama , 9; I. Stavans, Imagining Columbus: the literary voyage , 5; W. Wheeler and S. Becker, Discovering the American Past. A Look at the Evidence: to , This traditional viewpoint has been attacked as unfounded in an influential article by A. Lybyer "The Ottoman Turks and the Routes of Oriental Trade", English Historical Review , , — , who sees the rise of Ottoman power and the beginnings of Portuguese and Spanish explorations as unrelated events.
His view has not been universally accepted cf. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant — , Vol. Atlantic Journal of Communication. ISSN S2CID Official website of Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey. Retrieved 26 June Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire.
Infobase Publishing , 21 May ISBN , Start and CITED: p. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vol II, ISBN , National Geographic Society.
Retrieved 28 March ISBN Fortna, page 50;" Although in the late Ottoman period Persian was taught in the state schools However Persian maintained its position also during the early Ottoman period in the composition of histories and even Sultan Salim I, a bitter enemy of Iran and the Shi'ites, wrote poetry in Persian.
All these titles would be appropriate in the religious and cultural education of the newly converted young men. Persian Historiography: History of Persian Literature A, Volume 10, edited by Ehsan Yarshater, Charles Melville, page ;" Persian held a privileged place in Ottoman letters.
Persian historical literature was first patronized during the reign of Mehmed II and continued unabated until the end of the 16th century. In György Hazai ed. Archivum Ottomanicum. In Herzog, Christoph; Malek Sharif eds. The First Ottoman Experiment in Democracy. Würzburg : Orient-Institut Istanbul.
But it was the only Western language which would become increasingly widespread among educated persons in all linguistic communities. Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, — New York: Basic Books. The Cambridge History of Islam: The Indian sub-continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim west.
Cambridge University Press. International Studies Quarterly. JSTOR ISSN X. Retrieved 12 September Urban Development Issues. Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, — Greenwood Publishing Group. Infobase Publishing, NY. Encyclopedia Britannica. Osman I, also called Osman Gazi, born c. Basic Books.
The Ottoman Empire, — 2 ed. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Retrieved 26 August The Arab Lands under Ottoman Rule, — Pearson Education Ltd. The Second Ottoman Empire: Political and Social Transformation in the Early Modern Period. Ottomanist historians have produced several works in the last decades, revising the traditional understanding of this period from various angles, some of which were not even considered as topics of historical inquiry in the mid-twentieth century.
Thanks to these works, the conventional narrative of Ottoman history — that in the late sixteenth century the Ottoman Empire entered a prolonged period of decline marked by steadily increasing military decay and institutional corruption — has been discarded. Woodhead, Christine In Christine Woodhead ed. The Ottoman World. Faroqhi, Suraiya An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, — In the past fifty years, scholars have frequently tended to view this decreasing participation of the sultan in political life as evidence for "Ottoman decadence", which supposedly began at some time during the second half of the sixteenth century.
Major evidence of decline was not visible before the second half of the eighteenth century. Ottoman Wars, — An Empire Besieged. Turkey, Islam, Nationalism and Modernity: A History, — New Haven: Yale University Press. The Ottoman Empire, — Cambridge University Press Kindle edition. A History of the Ottoman Empire. Archived from the original on 28 March Imber, Colin The Ottoman Empire, — The Structure of Power 2 ed.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan. By the seventeenth century, literate circles in Istanbul would not call themselves Turks, and often, in phrases such as 'senseless Turks', used the word as a term of abuse. The Edinburgh History of the Greeks, to Ottoman Maritime Wars, — Istanbul: The Isis Press. The scholarly community specializing in Ottoman studies has of late virtually banned the use of "Turkey", "Turks", and "Turkish" from acceptable vocabulary, declaring "Ottoman" and its expanded use mandatory and permitting its "Turkish" rival only in linguistic and philological contexts.
Infobase Publishing. The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State.
Osman's Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire. In Fleet, Kate ed. The Cambridge History of Turkey. Historical Dictionary of Kosova. Scarecrow Press. Nicopolis The Last Crusade. Osprey Publishing. Erickson A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Atatürk. Archived from the original on 29 May In Mark Erickson, Ljubica Erickson ed. Russia War, Peace And Diplomacy: Essays in Honour of John Erickson.
The Ottoman state and its place in world history. Leiden: Brill. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
January International Journal of Middle East Studies. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 25 December The Ottoman Empire, — The Structure of Power. Palgrave Macmillan. Humanists and Reformers: A History of the Renaissance and Reformation. Eerdmans Publishing. Parry, A History of the Ottoman Empire to , ed. Cook Cambridge University Press, , II, ed.
Spencer C. Tucker, ABC-CLIO, Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, — London: Penguin Books. Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 11 September Truxillo , Jain Publishing Company, "Crusaders in the Far East: The Moro Wars in the Philippines in the Context of the Ibero-Islamic World War".
Ottoman-Aceh Relations According to the Turkish Sources PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 19 January Retrieved 16 December Middle Eastern Studies. Empire and Power in the reign of Süleyman: Narrating the Sixteenth-Century Ottoman World. Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea Steppe: — University of Toronto Press. Retrieved 11 February Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University. Archived from the original PDF on 15 January A Bibliographical History. Volume 10 Ottoman and Safavid Empires — Middle East Conflicts from Ancient Egypt to the 21st Century: An Encyclopedia and Document Collection [4 volumes].
The Twilight Of A Military Tradition: Italian Aristocrats And European Conflicts, — II University of California Press: Berkeley, Süleyman the Magnificent and His Age: the Ottoman Empire in the Early Modern World. An Economic And Social History of the Ottoman Empire, Vol. A Military History of Italy. Armenians: Past and Present in the Making of National Identity.
Retrieved 30 December Genocide and the Modern Age: Etiology and Case Studies of Mass Death. Istanbul Technical University. Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 6 November Utrecht University Library. Archived from the original on 12 February Journal of the American Oriental Society. Serb Land of Montenegro. History Derailed: Central and Eastern Europe in the Long 19th Century.
University of California Press. Phases of Terrorism in the Age of Globalization: From Christopher Columbus to Osama bin Laden. Palgrave Macmillan US. Within the first three decades, the French military massacred between half a million to one million from approximately three million Algerian people. Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. In Algeria, colonization and genocidal massacres proceeded in tandem.
From to , its European settler population quadrupled to , Of the native Algerian population of approximately 3 million in , about , to 1 million perished in the first three decades of French conquest.
The Making of Contemporary Algeria, —
The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire - ThoughtCo
13/7/2019 · The Ottoman Empire began in the late 1200s during the breakup of the Seljuk Turk Empire. After that empire broke up, the Ottoman Turks began to take control of the other states belonging to the former empire and by the late 1400s, all other Turkish dynasties were controlled by the Ottoman Turks.
22/11/ · OTTOMAN EMPIRE Great Eastern Crisis Rumours of Ottoman atrocities against the rebellious population shocked European sensibilities. Russia intended to enter the war on the side of the rebels. Delegates of the Great Powers assembled at the Constantinople Conference in The Sultan, refused to compromise his independence by allowing international representatives to oversee the institution of. 13/7/ · The Ottoman Empire began in the late s during the breakup of the Seljuk Turk Empire. After that empire broke up, the Ottoman Turks began to take control of the other states belonging to the former empire and by the late s, all other Turkish dynasties were controlled by the Ottoman Turks. 25/4/ · Ottoman Empire: AD to Osman I leads his Ghazi troops into battle against the Byzantines in Anatolia (part of modern-day Turkey). 5. Formation. The Ottoman Empire began in after an Oguz warrior named Ertugrul and his son, Osman Gazi, arrived at the Empire of Rum in Anatolia (Asia Minor) from Central Asia.
La fin de l'Empire ottoman
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Only 80 years separate the modern Middle East from the forgotten and long-lived Ottoman Empire. Over a Empire Ottoman span of six hundred years, from about to Empiire, the Ottoman Empire Ottoman expanded into the largest political entity in Empire Ottoman and western Asia and then imploded and disappeared into Empire Ottoman back pages of history.
AroundOsman Ia Muslim warrior and leader of a small principality inside Seljuk Turk territory, declared his independence from the Seljuk sultan. The Ottoman Empire was founded. Ottoman is derived from Uthman, the Arabic form of Osman. From its Empire Ottoman bridgehead in Anatolia, Osman and his son Orhan began expanding their lands northwest into Byzantine Empire territory and Ogtoman into the rest of Anatolia.
During the second great expansion period from tothe Ottoman Turks conquered territory in Empide, Egypt, Mesopotamia modern Iraqand Hungary. At its apogee, Suleiman the Magnificent c. In the Empirr attempted to continue their European expansion by attacking Vienna in July. The assault failed; the slow decline of the Empire had begun. Problems within the army over pay and recruitment as well as government corruption and civil unrest were the main catalyst for the decline.
Egypt was temporarily lost to Napoleon in then permanently lost in Greece was lost after the Greek War of Independence The Empire tried to modernize its army and implement political and economic reform but it was too late. In the Young Turk movement, led by a coalition of Nude Ases groups, revolted against the authoritarian regime of the sultan and setup a constitutional government. In Elite Pain Tube War I the government joined forces Emmpire the Central Powers.
When the Central Powers were defeated, the Ottoman Territory was greatly reduced and the borders were aligned roughly with present day Turkey. After the war, from the years andMustafa Kemal led a national uprising the Turkish War of Independence against the last Ottoman sultan which laid the foundation of the new Turkish State and signaled the end of the Ottoman Empire. Selected sources: Cantor, Norman F. The Encyclopedia of the Ottomaan Ages. New York.
O'Brien, Patrick K. Encyclopedia of World History. Facts on File. Empide item was created by a contributor to eHistory prior to its affiliation with The Ohio State University. As such, it has not been reviewed for accuracy by the University and does not necessarily adhere to the University's scholarly standards. Footjob Privat to main content.
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