Due to Sudan's vaguely worded Public Order law, there are no delineated parameters of what constitutes immodest dress. Note- Women who appear in public places and roads without wearing an Islamic hijab , shall be sentenced ten days to two months' imprisonment or a fine of five hundred to fifty thousand rials. Angus Reid.
Harvard Magazine. July Due to Sudan's vaguely worded Public Order law, there are no delineated parameters of what constitutes immodest dress. Veils covering the face as well as the chador are rare. Through clothing, they propagate a sub-culture that promotes patriarchy and Islamic extremism.
16/09/ · The Hijabi store in a central Frankfurt district sells niqabs, burqas and others kinds of veils for orthodox Muslim women. PHOTO: DW A Frankfurt store selling niqabs, burqas and hijabs has been Estimated Reading Time: 6 mins.
The Frankfurt exhibition includes pieces to demonstrate that modest fashion does not always mean women must cover. The young German-Turkish designer Feyza Baycelebi signed this creation, part of ...
#JusticeForZaraKay – Faithless Hijabi
#JusticeForZaraKay #JusticeForZara #StandUpForZaraKay Zara Kay, an Australian citizen and founder of Faithless Hijabi, was summoned to the Dar es-Salaam Oysterbay Police Station in Tanzania on 28 December 2020 and held in police custody for 32 hours without a clear indication of charges. Zara
15/09/ · The Hijabi store in a central Frankfurt district sells niqabs, burqas and others kinds of veils for orthodox Muslim women. The outlet has several choices for women wanting to try out different versions of the Islamic garment, all of which are on display on the company’s website. These include long linen dresses with high collars in muted Estimated Reading Time: 4 mins.
Naomi Afia from Vienna is another designer promoting empowerment through modest fashion. Her collection "Our Bodies Our Business" demonstrates the variety of styles one can adopt as a Muslim. Austrian designer Imen Bousnina featured her debut collection at Modest Fashion Weeks in First initiated in Dubai, such fashion events are now held in Istanbul, London and Jakarta as well. Photographer Wesaam Al-Badr, who was born in Iraq but fled to the US with his family during the Gulf War, wanted to comment on the Western perception of the niqab through his series "Al-Kouture," showing women wearing designer scarves by brands like Chanel, repurposed as high-fashion pieces.
It was a form of "soft protest," he says. This photo is part of the series "Occupied Pleasures," by Tanya Habjouqa. Her portraits shows how people occupy themselves in Israeli-occupied territories. Here girls play javelin right by the Israeli West Bank barrier. The photos won several awards, including a World Press Photo award in Countless bloggers, influencers and fashion magazines are dedicated to the Muslim fashion world.
This aspect is also addressed in the exhibition "Contemporary Muslim Fashions," which can be seen in Frankfurt until September Egyptian athlete Manal Rostom made waves in , appearing in a Nike advert wearing a hijab. After running the Berlin Marathon she told DW what inspired her to insist that Nike feature Muslim women in its campaigns. Eight people were arrested for modeling or publishing photos of women without headscarves. Visit the new DW website Take a look at the beta version of dw. Go to the new dw.
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Public and political response to such prohibition proposals is complex, since by definition they mean that the government decides on individual clothing. Some non-Muslims, who would not be affected by a ban, see it as an issue of civil liberties , as a slippery slope leading to further restrictions on private life. A public opinion poll in London showed that 75 percent of Londoners support "the right of all persons to dress in accordance with their religious beliefs".
Others would also argue that the increase of laws surrounding the banning of headscarves and other religious paraphernalia has led to an increase in not just the sales of headscarves and niqabs , but an increase in the current religiosity of the Muslim population in Europe: as both a product of and a reaction to westernization. According to a ruling by the European Court of Justice on a case involving two Belgian women, employers in the EU may restrict the wearing of religious symbols if such regulations on appearance are applied consistently.
In , a legal ban on face-covering clothing was adopted by the Austrian parliament. The Austrian legislators said their motivation was promoting equality between men and women and improving social integration with respect to local customs. Parents who send their child to school with a headscarf will be fined euro. As of , Belgium has specific bans on face-covering dress, such as the niqab or burqa.
On Tuesday 11 July the European Court of Human Rights upheld Belgium's ban on burqas and full-face veils. In , a ban on the wearing of face-covering clothing in public was adopted by the Bulgarian parliament. In autumn , the Danish government considered adopting a law prohibiting people to wear "attire and clothing masking the face in such a way that it impairs recognizability". On the first day of the implementation of the burqa ban, hundreds of protesters rallied wearing face veils in public.
Police officers that fail to obey the orders of the ban are subject to be fined. France is a secular country. One of the key principles of the French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State is the freedom of religious exercise. At the same time, this law prohibited public servants from wearing any religious signs during work. In , the French Ministry for Education sent out recommendations to teachers and headmasters to ban the Islamic veil specified as hijab, niqab, and burka in educational institutions.
According to a study by the IZA Institute of Labor Economics,  a higher proportion of girls of Muslim background born after graduated from high school, bringing their graduation rates closer to the non-Muslim female cohort. Having a "Muslim background" was defined as having an immigrant father from a predominantly Muslim country hence, indigenized Muslims with a longer history in France were not considered , as the study was highlighting the "difficulties faced by adolescents with a foreign cultural background in forming their own identity".
Males in the Muslim group also had a lower graduation rate than males in the non-Muslim group. In , a ban on face covering ,  targeting especially women wearing chador and burqa , was adopted by the French Parliament. According to the Guardian, the "Burqa ban", was challenged and taken to the European Court of Human Rights which upheld the law on 1 July , accepting the argument of the French government that the law was based on "a certain idea of living together".
The French criminal courts noted in that the lower court was wrong to dismiss her rights covered under article 18 but dismissed her appeal.
Judges Angelika Nussberger and Helena Jäderblom dissented, calling the concept, "far-fetched and vague. A broader ban on hijab is regularly proposed by conservative and right-wing politicians. In May , Emmanuel Macron 's party Le Republique en Marche barred a Muslim woman from running as one of its local election candidates because she wore a hijab for a photograph on a campaign flier. In , a ban on face-covering clothing for soldiers and state workers during work was approved by German parliament.
Due to rapid demographic changes in Germany following immigration from Muslim countries , public debates ensued which among other topics concerned Islamic veils from the turn of the century onwards. In Susanne Schröter, an academic at Goethe University Frankfurt planned a conference titled "The Islamic veil — Symbol of dignity or oppression? The protestors criticized the invitation of journalist Alice Schwarzer and publisher of feminist magazine EMMA.
Schröter is a noted critic of Islamic veils and argues that the veil restricts a woman's freedom and usually comes with a bundle of restrictions. Schröter was backed by the president of Frankfurt University who stressed that it is her job to organize academic conferences where diverse opinions can be voiced. The president of the German Association of University Professors and Lecturers [ de ] argued that freedom of speech meant that controversial topics should be resolved by debate, not "boycotts, mobbing or violence".
The Alternative for Germany are the largest party in Germany that advocates a ban on the burqa and niqab in public places. Since , the hijab has been banned in public schools and universities or government buildings.
In The Independent reported that a legal ban of face-covering Islamic clothing was adopted by the Latvian parliament. Malta has no restrictions on Islamic dressing such as the veil hijab nor the full face veil burqa or niqab  but lawfully face covering is illegal,  however an official ban on face covering for religious reasons is ambiguous.
The States General of the Netherlands enacted a ban on face-covering clothing, popularly described as the "burqa ban", in January She stated that removing someone wearing a burqa from public transport in the capital would not be fitting with current Dutch society.
Chairman of the Dutch Public Transport Association Pedro Peters also voiced his opinion on the ban. Peters said: "You are not going to stop the bus for half an hour for someone wearing a burqa", waiting for the police to arrive; "we are also not allowed to refuse anyone because we have a transport obligation".
On 7 October Tendayi Achiume, The United Nations Special Rapporteur on racism, wrote a report questioning the perceived inclusivity of Dutch society and how that perception masks a reality of treating racial and ethnic minorities as foreign. Speaking about the "burqa ban" Achiume said "The political debate surrounding the adoption of this law makes plain its intended targeting of Muslim women, and even if this targeting was not the intent, it has certainly been the effect".
She said that this whisleblower raised concerns about a culture of racism and targeted discrimination within the police department, and the government must act quickly to combat it. In the Norwegian parliament voted to ban the burqa in schools and universities. In April , the Telia telecom company received bomb threats after featuring a Muslim woman taking off her hijab in a commercial.
Although the police did not evaluate the threat as likely to be carried out, delivering threats is still a crime in Norway. In December , the municipality of Skurup banned Islamic veils in educational institutions. Earlier, the municipality of Staffanstorp approved a similar ban. Earlier, in September , a constitutional referendum in the Canton of Ticino on a popular initiative banning full-face veils was approved with In September , the Canton of St Gallen become the second canton in Switzerland to vote in favor of a ban on facial coverings in public with two-thirds casting a ballot in favor.
The UK has no specific legislation prohibiting any form of traditional Islamic dress. In some cases, hijabs are worn by young girls from age 6—8. In , the government passed a law banning the wearing of full face-veils, called burqas or niqabs, for female public servants while at work.
There is no legal hijab enforcement in Afghanistan, but it is predominantly worn largely due to cultural reasons. In the midth century many women in urban areas did not wear head coverings, but this ended with the outbreak of civil war in the s.
Although the Taliban regime ended in , some women continue to wear it out of security concerns. After the Fall of Kabul , an interviewed Taliban spokesman rejected the idea that "women should not wear headscarves for education", saying it was not part of their culture.
With Azerbaijan's secular tradition, there has reportedly been a general perception in the country linking the hijab with extremism.
Many covered women have reported experiencing job discrimination. In , Egyptian leader President Gamal Abdel Nasser was told by the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood that they wanted to enforce the wearing of the hijab, to which Nasser responded: "Sir, I know you have a daughter in college — and she doesn't wear a headscarf or anything! Why don't you make her wear the headscarf? So you can't make one girl, your own daughter, wear it, and yet you want me to go and make ten million women wear it?
The veil gradually disappeared in the following decades, so much so that by an article by the United Press UP stated that "the veil is unknown here. According to The New York Times , as of about 90 percent of Egyptian women currently wear a headscarf. Small numbers of women wear the niqab.
The secular government does not encourage women to wear it, fearing it will present an Islamic extremist political opposition. In the country, it is negatively associated with Salafist political activism. In , two presenters were excluded from a state run TV station for deciding to wear hijab on national television. Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy , Grand Imam of al-Azhar , issued a fatwa in October arguing that veiling of the face is not required under Islam.
He had reportedly asked a student to take off her niqab when he spotted her in a classroom, and he told her that the niqab is a cultural tradition without Islamic importance. Many Egyptians in the elite are opposed to hijab , believing it harms secularism. By some businesses had established bans on veils, and Egyptian elites supported these bans. In Indonesia, the term jilbab is used without exception to refer to the hijab.
Such formal or cultural Muslim events may include official governmental events, funerals, circumcision sunatan ceremonies or weddings. However, wearing Islamic attire to Christian relatives' funerals and weddings and entering the church is quite uncommon.
Culturally to the Javanese majority, plain, Saudi-style hijab , the niqab or socially worse yet the indigenous peasant kerudung known in North Sumatran languages as tudung is considered vulgar, low-class and a faux pas — the traditional Javanese hijab are transparent, sheer, intricately brocaded or embroidered fine silk or lace tailored to match either their sarung or kebaya blouse.
Young girls may also elect to wear the hijab publicly to avoid unwanted low-class male attention and molestation and thus display their respectability as "good Muslim girls": that is, they are not "easy" conquests. Islamic schools must by law provide access to Christians and vice versa Catholic and Protestant schools allow Muslim students and it is to be worn by Christian students who attend Muslim school, and its use by Muslim students is not objected to in Christian schools.
On May , a government decree was issued banning schools from enforcing the jilbab as part of their uniform, after reports of discrimination against girls who removed them surfaced. Many nuns refer to their habit as a jilbab , perhaps out of the colloquial use of the term to refer to any religious head covering. The sole exception where jilbab is mandatory is in Aceh Province, under Islamic sharia -based Law No. This Acehnese hukum syariah and the reputedly over-bearing "morality police" who enforce its Aceh-only mandatory public wearing are the subject of fierce debate, especially with regard to its validity vis-a-vis the Constitution among Acehnese male and female Muslim academics, Acehnese male and female politicians and female rights advocates.
Until , except in Aceh, female police officers are not allowed to wear hijab. Since 25 March , based on Indonesian Police Chief Letter of Statement No. Flight attendants are not allowed to wear hijab except during flights to the Middle East. Compounding the friction and often anger toward baju Arab Arab clothes , is the ongoing physical and emotional abuse of Indonesian women in Saudi Arabia , as guest workers , commonly maids or as Hajja pilgrims and Saudi Wahhabi intolerance for non-Saudi dress code has given rise to mass protests and fierce Indonesian debate up to the highest levels of government about boycotting Saudi Arabia — especially the profitable all Hajj pilgrimage — as many high-status women have been physically assaulted by Saudi morality police for non-conforming head-wear or even applying lip-balm — leading some to comment on the post- pan Arabist repressiveness of certain Arab nations due to excessively rigid, narrow and erroneous interpretation of Sharia law.
In Iran, since the Islamic Revolution , the hijab has become compulsory. Women are required to wear loose-fitting clothing and a headscarf in public. This partially changed in the Middle Ages after the arrival of the Turkic nomadic tribes from Central Asia , whose women didn't wear headscarves.
Later, during the economic crisis in the late 19th century under the Qajar dynasty , the poorest urban women could not afford headscarves. On 8 January ,  Reza Shah issued a decree, banning all veils. Two slogans of the revolution were: "Wear a veil, or we will punch your head," and "Death to the unveiled. In May , My Stealthy Freedom , an Iranian online movement advocating for women's freedom of choice, created the White Wednesday movement: a campaign that invites men and women to wear white veils , scarves or bracelets to show their opposition to the mandatory forced veiling code.
Many veiled women in Iran also find the compulsory imposition of the veil to be an insult. By taking videos of themselves wearing white , these women can also show their disagreement with compulsion. On 27 December , year-old Vida Movahed , also known as "The Girl of Enghelab Street " was arrested for being unveiled in public after a video of the woman went viral on social media.
On 28 January , Nasrin Sotoudeh , a renowned human rights lawyer, posted on Facebook that Vida had been released. On 23 February , Iranian Police released an official statement saying that any women found protesting Iran's compulsory veiling code would be charged with "inciting corruption and prostitution," which carries a maximum sentence of 10 years in prison. Note- Women who appear in public places and roads without wearing an Islamic hijab , shall be sentenced ten days to two months' imprisonment or a fine of five hundred to fifty thousand rials.
Following the announcement, multiple women reported being subjected to physical abuse by police following their arrests. The video then shows a man in a police uniform tackling the woman to the ground.
Salman Samani, a spokesman for Ministry released a statement on 25 February saying "No one has a license to act against the law even in the role of an officer dealing with crimes. On 8 March , a video of three Iranian women singing a feminist fight song in Tehran's subway went viral on. The women hold hands, display pictures of a previous women's rights protest, and ask the other women on the subway train to clap in honor of "having lived and fought all their lives against all kinds of discrimination, violence, humiliation, and insults.
That same day, the Supreme Leader of Iran , Ali Khamenei , made a speech during a gathering of religious poets in Tehran, posting a series of tweets in response to the series of peaceful hijab protests. He also lashed out at the Western world for, in his view, leading its own women astray. The Iraqi sociologist Ali Al-Wardi mentioned that women in Iraq were not used to wearing the Hijab , the Hijab wasn't common before the 's , the Hijab was only widespread among the wives of Ottoman employees and clerics during the Ottoman period.
In south Iraq, particularly in the Shi'a holy cities of Najaf and Karbala, custom requires women to wear hijab. Women in public places usually wear abaya which is a long black cloth that covers the whole body except the face and the hands, in addition to the scarf that only covers the hair. They might wear boushiya. In private, in governmental institutions and universities they can wear manteaux which could be long or short with a scarf covering the head.
In Baghdad and Iraqi Kurdistan, women are free to choose whether or not to wear the hijab. In , the Iraqi army imposed a burqa ban in the liberated areas of Mosul for the month of Ramadan. Police stated that the temporary ban was for security measures, so that ISIS bombers could not disguise themselves as women.
There are no laws requiring the wearing of headscarves nor any banning such from any public institution. The use of the headscarf increased during the s. However, the use of the headscarf is generally prevalent among the lower and lower middle classes. Veils covering the face as well as the chador are rare.
On September , schools in some regions of Kazakhstan banned girls wearing headscarves from further attendance. Attempts by Muslim parents to challenge the ban had failed as of April Some schools reportedly banned Muslim students from attending classes in and over their headscarf. A school in Kara-Suu officially banned wearing the hijab for classes in The headscarf is known as a tudung , which simply means "cover".
The word is used with that meaning in other contexts, e. Muslim women may freely choose whether or not to wear the headscarf. The exception is when visiting a mosque, where the tudung must be worn; this requirement also includes non-Muslims. Although headscarves are permitted in government institutions, public servants are prohibited from wearing the full-facial veil or niqab. A judgment from the then— Supreme Court of Malaysia in cites that the niqab , or purdah , "has nothing to do with a woman's constitutional right to profess and practise her Muslim religion", because Islam does not make it obligatory to cover the face.
Although wearing the hijab, or tudung, is not mandatory for women in Malaysia, some government buildings enforce within their premises a dress code which bans women, Muslim and non-Muslim, from entering while wearing "revealing clothes". This use of the tudung was uncommon prior to the Iranian revolution ,  and the places that had women in tudung tended to be rural areas.
The usage of the tudung sharply increased after the s,  as religious conservatism among Malay people in both Malaysia and Singapore increased. By Malaysia had a fashion industry related to the tudung. Malaysian activist Maryam Lee reportedly received vitriolic backlash and death threats in for criticising what she saw as institutional patriarchy in Islam and speaking out about her decision to not wear the hijab.
Malaysian authorities questioned her for possibly breaching a law against insulting the religion. There are no official laws in the Constitution of the Maldives that require women to cover their heads, but Maldivian women commonly wear a hijab and niqab in public. There are reports of women being pressured into covering themselves by close relatives;  conversely, the American U. State Department's annual International Religious Freedom Report in referenced one instance in which a female student was restricted from attending school for wearing a headscarf, despite civil servants wearing them at work without issue.
In Morocco, the headscarf is not forbidden by law, and women are free to choose to wear one. As it is not totally widespread, wearing a hijab is considered rather a religious decision. In , a schoolbook for basic religious education was heavily criticized for picturing female children with headscarves, and later the picture of the little girl with the Islamic headscarf was removed from the school books.
In January Morocco banned the manufacturing, marketing and sale of the burqa. Depending on the societal status and city, a loose dupatta scarf is worn around the shoulders and upper chest or just on the shoulder, or isn't used at all. Westerners are also expected to dress modestly. Pakistani society observes traditional dress customs and it is advisable for women to wear long trousers which cover all of the legs, and tops with sleeves which don't show cleavage.
In the big cities, some teenage girls wear jeans underneath tunics, especially in casual settings, shopping malls and around picnic spots. For women, swimsuits and midi-and mini-skirts are considered immodest and are thus a social taboo. Hence, the vast majority of traditional Saudi women are expected to cover their body and hair in public. According to Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman , women are not required to cover their heads or wear the abaya, provided their clothing is "decent and respectful.
During regular, day-to-day activities, Somali women usually wear the guntiino , a long stretch of cloth tied over the shoulder and draped around the waist.
Married women tend to sport head-scarves referred to as shash , and also often cover their upper body with a shawl known as garbasaar. Unmarried or young women, however, wear hijab, and the jiilbab is also commonly worn.
While the hijab is not explicitly mandated by law, Sudanese women are required to dress modestly in public. Due to Sudan's vaguely worded Public Order law, there are no delineated parameters of what constitutes immodest dress.
The law states: "Whoever does in a public place an indecent act or an act contrary to public morals or wears an obscene outfit or contrary to public morals or causing an annoyance to public feelings shall be punished with flogging which may not exceed forty lashes or with fine or with both".
In , Ghiyath Barakat, Syria's minister of higher education, announced a ban on women wearing full-face veils at universities. The official stated that the face veils ran counter to secular and academic principles of Syria. In , the government of Tajikistan passed a law requiring people to "stick to traditional national clothes and culture", which has been widely seen as an attempt to prevent women from wearing Islamic clothing, in particular the style of headscarf wrapped under the chin, in contrast to the traditional Tajik headscarf tied behind the head.
Tunisian authorities say they are encouraging women, instead, to "wear modest dress in line with Tunisian traditions", i. In , women with headscarves were banned from schools and government buildings, and since then those who insist on wearing them face losing their jobs.
The government described the headscarf as a sectarian form of dress which came uninvited to the country. As of 14 January , after the Tunisian revolution took place,  the headscarf was authorized and the ban lifted. However, in contemporary urban Tunisian society, remnants of decades worth of discouragement remain. On 6 July the government banned the wearing of the niqab in public institutions citing security reasons.
Muslim fashion for women exhibition stirs controversy in ...
The Frankfurt exhibition includes pieces to demonstrate that modest fashion does not always mean women must cover. The young German-Turkish designer Feyza Baycelebi signed this creation, part of ...
Aesthetic_hijabi (@aesthetic_hijab1) on TikTok | K Likes. K Fans. Ya Pakistani Ya 🇵🇰|🇩🇪 Frankfurt 🏻. E-Mail-Adresse *. Ein Passwort wird an Deine E-Mail-Adresse gesendet. Für den Newsletter anmelden. 13/07/ · Lange Straße 15, Frankfurt #MyHijabi #hijabiofficial #modestfashion. Jetzt, nach erfolgter vollständiger Genehmigung der Behörden, freuen wir uns, dass unser Store endlich wieder geöffnet hat. Wir danken im Voraus für Eure Unterstützung bei der Durchführung aller Vorsichtsmaßnahmen.
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