Beyond that, urbanism remains car-centric and based on individual housing for nationals. Questioning transitions. Electrifying the urban-rural intermediate spaces in Senegal: a diversity of electricity access providing offers at the heart of market formation?
Recherches urbaines au Moyen-Orient… et ailleurs
Presses de Sciences Po, pp. London: Routledge. Territoires et society Energy Transition and Revolution in Tunisia: Politics and Spatiality. The massive production of desalinated water also produces negative environmental outcomes.
Eric Verdeil. +33 1 58 71 70 For the publications of this expert please consult the website of CERI – Centre d’études et de recherches internationales. Job title. Professor of Geography and Urban Studies. Institution. CERI – Centre d’études et de recherches internationales.
- In this sense, empirical and theoretical work on electricity in Lebanon can contribute to the developing set of debates and frameworks regarding the comparative study of electricity.
- International Development Planning Review.
- Despite the potential of cities to foster a low-carbon energy transition, the governance of energy in India broadly remains within the purview of central and state governments.
12/02/2020 · by Eric Verdeil. 12 February 2020 13 min read. Since 1987 and the release of the Bruntland Report on sustainable development, concerns over climate change, biodiversity and other global threats have grown, and urbanization is at the core of this global anxiety. The world’s urban population, as recorded by the UN, has now reached 4.2 billion ...
Joe Nasr, Éric Verdeil
Eric Verdeil, CNRS, UMR 5600 Environnement Ville Société, Lyon, France Introduction Beirut has successively been seen as the icon of the war-destroyed city, the paradigmatic case of “urbicide”1 and then as the symbol of a city rebirth through the reconstruction of its city
Eric Verdeil. Metropolitan authorities and local business elites are often seen as major players in the energy transition in the city. Such energy transitions are conceived of as low carbon.
They each answer the same four questions, published in two installments Part 1 and Part 2. Therefore, this roundtable draws on their individual projects and collective knowledge to reflect on the nature of the electricity sector and the production of knowledge about it. To read the introduction and responses to the first set of questions, click here. Ziad Abu-Rish: Middle East studies has recently featured an infrastructural turn, and within that a subset of scholars working on electricity.
In this sense, empirical and theoretical work on electricity in Lebanon can contribute to the developing set of debates and frameworks regarding the comparative study of electricity. From a historical perspective, a focus on electricity can provide new ways of thinking about economic development in Lebanon. This is one reason the work of historian Owain Lawson on the Litani River project is so fascinating beyond its shifting of the focus away from Beirut , as it allows us to think of Lebanon alongside other places like Egypt, Iraq, and Syria with regard to major state-led infrastructural projects.
My own work on the nationalization of the Beirut Electricity Company is conceived in relation to those cases that have formed the bases of comparative studies of economic nationalism and state-led development to the exclusion of cases like Lebanon. I think the scholarship on Lebanon and Palestine is generating questions and tools that could be helpful to think through the histories of electricity in other Arab countries, in part because these histories were so different—which makes them useful for comparison.
In Lebanon, electrical infrastructure development was, in its formative years, driven by concessionary companies, and in Palestine, by colonists, whereas in many other Arab countries it was an integral part of post-colonial state expansion. There is a fascinating, but still emerging, literature on the Aswan High Dam, which was of course an integrated development project with political and cultural implications for the Non-Aligned Movement and emerging Third World.
That film alone opens up countless avenues for scholarly inquiry. As in Lebanon, electricity infrastructure in each case was bound up in state transformations, populist and popular politics, international institutions, debt, and questions of expertise, technocracy, and self-determination.
Joanne Nucho: Lebanon is an important basis for comparative analysis for many reasons, and I am working on this very question at the moment. In many other contexts where electricity is unreliable, people use small generators to supply their own apartments or homes, Anthropologist Brian Larkin has written extensively about this in the context of Nigeria.
In some cases, municipalities have stepped in to regulate these systems. They are, in a sense, privatized microgrids, in the context of a state that does not provide seamless service across the country. This is an important turn in ideas about how to provision infrastructure that is not unique to Lebanon. Eric Verdeil: Lebanon provides an important basis for comparative analysis regarding two issues. The first is the use of infrastructure as an instrument of political domination in context of war and colonization.
Steven Graham has powerfully explained how targeting electricity grids was a way of switching off cities. The Lebanese context offers intriguing variations around this feature. During the civil war , threats or implementation of cutting the electricity supply to West Beirut was a powerful tool of pressure. Increasing autonomy, by building an electric line from Jiyyeh to West Beirut, was a way to resist this domination.
Usually seen as a state-concern, this notion is also valid at the sub-regional or metropolitan scale. The Lebanese experience of generators networks offers many lessons for endangered citizens in context of civil wars and their aftermaths, for instance in Iraq and Syria, where these issues should become the object of further studies, as some examples already illustrate in the case of Aleppo. The Lebanese examples raise many questions about local governance of infrastructure when the state is absent, or uses infrastructure as a tool of punishment, and how it can, or not, create identity and solidarity at the local level.
What can be observed in Lebanon nowadays is not unique per se. Livros de Eric Verdeil. Eric Verdeil, Atelier de cartographie de Sciences Po. Paix et la crise: le Liban reconstruit? Ganhe dinheiro conosco. Their presented were discussed by Eric Verdeil Sciences Po CERI and Hybridelec project leader , Jamil Mouawad AUB and Pallavi Roy SOAS University.
Read the Briefing paper: Ahmad, Ali, et al. Making Anti-Corruption Real. Chaplain, Alix. Rateau, M. Electrifying urban Africa: energy access, city-making and globalisation in Nigeria and Benin. International Development Planning Review. Electricity access has become a crucial issue in global South cities. While demand is growing, conventional grids are failing or insufficient, especially in Africa.
Urban dwellers therefore have to develop a wide range of in formal infrastructures to meet their daily electricity needs. Building on recent studies on urban electricity in the global South, this paper aims to contribute to the debates on hybrid forms of electricity provision by analysing the diffusion of solar panels and generators in two cities, Ibadan in Nigeria and Cotonou in Benin.
Although neighbouring and relatively similar, these two cities illustrate distinct daily electrical lives. In Benin, a country that depends on Nigeria for its supply, there is electricity but it is difficult to connect to the grid because of connection costs. In Cotonou, solar energy is an alternative until they can connect to the grid. Generators and solar panels have become the material markers of urban Africa, providing information on inequalities in access to electricity.
Online available upon request. ABSTRACT The article examines the dynamics of access to electricity in two West African cities: Cotonou Benin and Ibadan Nigeria. Due to poor supply from the grid, households are developing varied ways of accessing electricity, based on different socio-technical dispositifs. In this paper we first demonstrate that access to electricity is based on coproduction processes that must be approached from a multi-scale perspective from the household to the urban scale.
We then argue that particular attention to the socio-technical and spatial dimension of co-production arrangements makes it possible to interpret urban electrical configurations and their evolution.
We thus show that co-production processes, relying on many actors and technologies to meet a growing and diversified demand for electricity in cities, support an ongoing movement of extension-hybridisation of electricity configurations on an urban scale, thus offering an interesting perspective on power changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Securitisation of urban electricity supply A political ecology perspective on the cases of Jordan and Lebanon Eric Verdeil.
Haim Yacobi; Mansour Nasasra. Routledge Handbook on Middle Eastern Cities , Routledge, pp. Online : halshs Abstract: Questions about urban infrastructure, resilience, and violence are central to current urban general literature since infrastructures function as locations of conflict and negotiation over the public good, inclusion and exclusion, and mobility in the city. This chapter develops a theoretical framework to analyse the emergence of new concerns for urban energy security in the cities of Amman Jordan and Jbeil and Zahleh Lebanon.
Supplying these cities with electricity requires creating new circuits that are both material and sociopolitical. Analysis shows the pressure of urban energy demand and the resizing of metabolic circuits at the level of the metropolis of Amman, while the governance of these circuits remains state-driven despite popular protests.
In Jbeil and Zahleh, in the face of regular and long-lasting power cuts, local capitalist actors have taken the lead to provide an alternative electricity supply that replaces both the national grid and informal generators that are in use elsewhere in the country. At first glance, both situations seem very different in scale and in the type of actors involved.
But in both cases, these new circuits are heavily contested and redistribute agencies of power in ways that empower some actors but that, at the same time, erode solidarity at the city and the national levels. We are happy to announce the release of a new working paper, partly supported by Hybridelec, in association with the Center for Policy Studies in Dehli:.
Despite the potential of cities to foster a low-carbon energy transition, the governance of energy in India broadly remains within the purview of central and state governments. However, the Smart Cities Mission, a new urban scheme launched in , gives Indian cities new powers to govern energy, a surprising departure from previous urban and energy policies. To address these questions, we build on a database of projects and financing plans submitted by the first 60 cities selected in the Smart Cities Mission.
Cities also proposed projects in solar energy, electric vehicles, waste to energy and LED lighting, indicating their appetite for low-carbon projects. While cities were given institutional space to prioritise certain technologies, their interventions were conditioned by centrally sources of financing which were limited to certain mandated technologies. A focus on technology, rather than planning, undermined the role of cities as strategic decision-makers.
What emerges is a dual faced reading of the Smart Cities Mission, indicating the potential and pitfalls of contemporary decentralized energy governance in the Global South. The full working paper can be accessed here. Based on extensive fieldwork and interviews with local entrepreneurs who invested in alternative energy systems, such as mini-grid operators and solar panel retailers, this paper will try to decipher how the hybridization of energy systems in Bhagalpur has evolved with the improvement of grid supply.
Looking at different technologies batteries, diesel mini-grids, solar and different markets households, shops and market areas, public sector , we are able to identify different dynamics. Amongst collective solutions such as diesel mini-grids, while some disappear, others either remain beyond the reach of the grid or are able to adapt by becoming complementary to it. As regards individual systems, while the market for batteries is thriving, the market for solar home systems is slowing down.
Amongst other factors, which favour hybridization, we can underline a general distrust in the conventional network, the resilience of past practices and the social embeddedness of certain systems. Hybrid configurations thus appear as dynamic arrangements, continuously shaped by evolving local, regional and national socio-technical and political contexts.
This long lasting situation has given rise to the advent and gradual solidification of a landscape of alternative electric solutions. While several works have already examined generators in residential contexts Gabillet ; Abi Ghanem ; Verdeil , this emerging hybrid landscape has not been documented yet. This paper intends to present the first findings, based on a several months of fieldwork in Lebanon.
Then it provides a first mapping of the hybrid projects already identified. Then, focusing on two cases with a political economy lens, we will raise questions about the legal and regulatory pending issues. In contrast to many accounts of heterogeneous infrastructure as precarious and always shifting, our contribution highlights infrastructural changes which have a potential of shaping alternative paths for the electric sector on the long run.
The first one traces the genealogy of public policies that promote renewable energy in the State. The first one is to advance a typology of rationales for adopting off-grid or grid-connected solar ranging from ensuring better access, harnessing existing subsidies, peer behavior, rebound effect.
The second one is to give attention to the manner in which the market is constructed. Finally, the third objective is to open up a reflection on the manner in which variety of practices on the ground by users and market players tell us about the nature of the co-evolution of urban space transformation and energy transition in peripheries of large cities.
At the local level, municipalities are struggling to adapt in order to preserve the foundations of their redistributive business model and to regulate processes of change that lead, de facto, to a growing heterogeneity of local electrical systems. Field surveys in the Western Cape Province show both the internal diversity of the emerging socio-technical configurations of electricity supply and the variety of situations from one city to another. Examining the hypothesis of a long-term hybridization, the communication suggests that, in this context, it is necessary to consider the energy transition first as a re-arrangement issue of this diversity rather than as an independent end.
This presentation will explore the relationship between infrastructural change and state-society relations through analysis of hybrid electrical configurations in South African cities. For many African governments, universal electrification now means a combination of grid and off-grid technologies. Yet, how citizenship is mediated through hybrid electrical configurations has profound implications for the effectiveness and equity of post-network cities.
Taking a socially and spatially differentiated perspective, the paper explores what the diffusion of off-grid solar photovoltaics might mean for the infrastructural citizenship of high- and low-income residents in South African cities. It places municipal policy-makers at the centre of analysis, engaging the state as the state engages with the post-network city.
Comparative analysis of Johannesburg and Cape Town reveals how municipal actors evoke different notions of citizenship in planning for technological and spatial change — including rights, responsibilities, freedom, entitlement, dependency, participation, empowerment, struggle and sacrifice. It is the interplay of these ideas with the interests of municipal governments that shape how and why the cities are planning for the post-network city in different ways.
I argue that analysing how infrastructure can be constitutive of citizenship means recognising that the state is neither absent and impotent nor all-powerful and predatory, but a conflicted and contested set of agents and relations. The paper concludes by reflecting on the explanatory power of different analytical frameworks as they grapple with the relationship between decentralisation and democratisation of urban energy infrastructures.
Paul Munro University of New South Wales, Australia In this presentation, I build on recent political ecology scholarship relating to heterogeneous infrastructure configurations to examine the dynamic geographies of urban electricity access in the Global South. As a case study, I focus on hybrid electrical configurations in Gulu Town, northern Uganda.
I tell the socio-electric stories of five Gulu Town residents, showing how electricity supply is derived from an eclectic range of sources that include the grid, photovoltaic modules, dry-cell batteries and diesel generators, and how access to these sources are negotiated through local socioeconomic dynamics and broader political economy processes.
These stories suggest that key to understanding heterogenous electricties is recognising the active role of urban inhabitants in negotiating infrastructure through different movements and connectivities, often within conditions of precarity.
As such I argue that the urban poor are best understood as electrical bricoleurs: people who make creative and resourceful use of whatever energy materials and social connectivities that are at hand to realise their electrical needs. And through their stories, nuanced insights can be drawn in terms of into how urban infrastructure, like electricity flows, are entangled with social lives.
These solutions are promoted by diverse economic actors through different socio-technical mechanisms. In Senegal, the government has set short and medium-term rural electrification targets, adopting various electrification strategies led by the Ministry of Oil and Energy and the Rural Electrification Agency, that influence the nature of the observed electric landscapes.
Beside those top-down initiatives, many households opt for the purchase of photovoltaic solar panels of various sizes, prices and quality, sold by a diversity of private actors through various service relations with users. The paper is based on field surveys conducted in Dakar and Kaolack region between and , and analyzes how different electrification processes, involving a diversity of actors and socio-technical arrangements, shape the electricity landscape and participate in the formation of a local electricity market in specific areas such as the intermediate urban-rural areas in Senegal.
To what extent do users take over the diversity of electricity access modes? What is role of public action in the form of the electric landscape as it is shown? Finally, to what extent does the electricity supply meet a heterogeneous and growing demand in these areas of diffuse urbanization?
Joyce Angnayeli Eledi Kuusaana TU Darmstadt, Germany The seamless and ubiquitous supply of infrastructure services such as electricity is usually seen as a critical backbone of modern urban societies. Yet, electricity supply in Accra and Dar es Salaam, like many other infrastructure services in cities in the global South, is commonly characterised as unreliable, unstable and unpredictable with power cuts being everyday occurrences.
In the midst of such insecurities however, the criticality of such infrastructure services, and the shortfall thereof, is met with innovation, ingenious maneuvering and building of adaptive systems that allow cities to function.
What New Challenges is Lebanon Facing? An Interview with Eric …
Eric Verdeil and Ghaleb Faour (EV & GF): The genesis of this atlas dates back to the end of the 1990s. The CNRS-L (or National Centre for Scientific Research-Lebanon) created its Centre for remote sensing in 1997 (where Ghaleb Faour had his first position) that started to produce a wide range of new geographic and environmental data using Geographic Information Systems.
Eric Verdeil, CNRS, UMR Environnement Ville Société, Lyon, France Introduction Beirut has successively been seen as the icon of the war-destroyed city, the paradigmatic case of “urbicide”1 and then as the symbol of a city rebirth through the reconstruction of its city. Eric Verdeil Objectives The PhD will examine the impact of recent discoveries of natural gas under salt deposits on the geopolitics and the economic development of the whole region. It will do so by mobilizing a geographical approach, with a relational understanding of. Eric Verdeil (Sciences Po, France) Lebanon, a middle income country, has a devastating record for the performance of the electric grid, as a from civil war but also paralysis of reconstruction plans for more than 25 years. currently amount .
Ses publications incluent Beyrouth et ses urbanistes : une ville en plansIFPOAtlas du Liban. He specializes in urban geography. He previously worked at the French Institute of the Near Granny On Beach and keeps close relationships with it.
His interests include the sociology and history of urbanism and the current transformations of urban management policies, specifically urban infrastructure energy, water, solid waste. His publications include Beyrouth et ses urbanistes : une ville en plansIFPOHomemade Gay Sex Toys du Liban. See the full list of publications with links to online papers.
He teaches at ScPO Paris in the Master Program Governing the Large Metropolis. Toggle navigation. Have you forgotten your login? Perspectives on Architecture and Urbanism from around the World 1 the arab world geographer 1. Number of documents Atlas des mondes urbains. Presses de Sciences Po, pp. Beyrouth et ses urbanistes. Une ville en plans Presses de l'IFPO, pp. Atlas du Liban. Atlas of Lebanon. New Challenges. Romain J. Romain Garcier; Laurence Rocher; Eric Verdeil. Presses de l'Ifpo; CNRS Liban, pp.
Sylvie Jaglin, Eric Verdeil. Pierre-Arnauld Barthel, Eric Verdeil. Planifier Beyrouth et ses urbanistes : une ville en plan. Eric Verdeil. Presse de l'IFPO, p. Paris, France. Anthropos-Economica,Villes. Arab Sustainable Urbanism: Worlding Strategies, Local Struggles. Dynamics, tensions, resistance in solar Eric Verdeil development in Tunisia. Infrastructure crises in Beirut and the struggle Eric Verdeil not reform the Lebanese State. Arab Studies JournalArab Studies Institute,XVI 1pp. Governing the transition to natural gas in Mediteranean Metropolis: The case of Cairo, Istanbul and Sfax Tunisia.
Energy PolicyElsevier,Special Section: Urban energy governance: local actions, capacities and politics, 78 3pp. The energy of revolts in Arab cities. The case of Jordan and Tunisia. Built EnvironmentAlexandrine Press,pp. ArabesquesABES, Eric Verdeil, pp.
The Contested Energy Future of Amman, Jordan: Between Promises of Hotmaturemoms Energies and a Nuclear Venture. Urban StudiesSAGE Publications,51 7pp. Villes arabes, villes durables? Arab Cities, Sustainable Cities? Challenges, movements and testing of new urban policies south of the Mediterranean.
Introductory Note. Energy Transition and Revolution Eric Verdeil Tunisia: Politics and Spatiality. Jadaliyya, pp. The Geography of Public Lighting in Arab Cities. Michel Ecochard Young Puffies Lebanon and Syria The spread of Modernism, the Building of the Independent States and the Rise of Local professionals of planning.
Beyrouth : les nouvelles lignes de front de la recherche urbaine. Les Carnets du LARHRA Eric Verdeil, LARHRA,pp. La reconstruction post au Liban : un laboratoire pour de nouvelles pratiques de l'urbanisme.
Revue Tiers MondeArmand Colin,pp. Maghreb-MachrekEska,pp. State development policy and specialised engineers. The case of urban planners in post-war Lebanon. Les Annales de la Recherche UrbainePUCA,pp. Les Cahiers de l'IAURIFIAURIF,pp. Beyrouth: Quarante ans de croissance urbaine. Plans for an unplanned city : Beirut Perspectives on Architecture and Urbanism from around the WorldThe Architectural League of New York, Les territoires du vote au Liban.
Expertises nomades Abrxxx Sud. Compte-rendu de Jean-Luc Pinol dir. Bernard Landau; Youssef Diab. Securitisation of urban electricity supply A political ecology perspective on the cases of Jordan and Lebanon. Haim Yacobi; Mansour Nasasra. Routledge Handbook on Middle Eastern CitiesRoutledgepp. Laurence Rocher, Eric Verdeil. Les traductions de urbanisme et town planning en arabe XXe s.
Laurent Coudroy de Lille; Olivier Ratouis. Les mots des urbanistes. Entre parlers techniques et langue communeL'Harmattan, The spatialities of energy transition processes. Energy transitions : A Socio-Technical InquiryPalgrave,Energy, Climate and the Environment series, Energy Transition and Urban Governance in the Arab World. Eckart Woertz.
Challenges of Urban Sustainabilitypp. Planning Histories in the Arab World. Carola Hein. The Routledge Handbook of Planning HistoryRoutledgepp. Beyrouth: reconstructions, fragmentation et Reife Frau In Strapsen infrastructurelles. Dominique Lorrain. Gouverner par les rentesPresses de Sciences Po, pp.
Emerging countries, cities and energy. Questioning transitions. The metropolis of darkness and the politics of urban electricity grid.
Energy, Power and Protest on the Urban Grid. Geographies of the Electric Foster MedicamentRoutledgepp.
Mona Harb; Sami Atallah. Local Governments and Public Goods: Assessing Decentralization in the Arab WorldLCPS, pp. An 'Arab Spring' for Corporatization? Bois Cherie Tee National Electricity Company STEG. David A. Rethinking Corporatization: Public Utilities in the Global SouthZED Books, pp.
Traductions en arabe des termes urbanisme et town planning Liban-Syrie-Egypte. Coudroy de Lille, O. L'imaginaire de Marseille.